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This is information provided by Hanpoong Pharmaceutical USA.


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Safety-verified natural material

Increased use of beauty food and sports nutrition food

With the development of paper chromatography technology in the 1950s, it became possible to separate sugars present in small amounts in human milk, and 10 types of neutral sugars were isolated from human milk.

In addition, 27 types of sugars were isolated in the 1980s, and N-acetylglucosamine, one of which was a new N-acetylglucosamine from K-casein, was discovered in 1981 by Saito et al. An amino sugar called acetylglucosamine was discovered. This monosaccharide has been confirmed to be used as an intermediate in glucose metabolism in mammary tissue, and it is reported that 11.7 mg of N-acetylglucosamine is contained in 100 ml of milk. Subsequently, in 1999, N-acetylglucosamine began to be commercially produced by enzymatic methods for the first time by Yaizu Fisheries Co., Ltd. in Japan, and is currently being used as a food additive.

On the other hand, N-acetylglucosamine has been used in large quantities as a diet supplement (effective for osteoarthritis) along with glucosamine in the United States and Canada, but it is mainly used as beauty food or sports nutrition food. In addition, in the case of Japan, Yaizu Fisheries industrialized it in the early 2000s, and the distribution volume is gradually increasing.

Confirmation of the effect of increasing the synthesis of human components

commonalities and differences

Glucosamine (DGA) and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) have chemical and physical similarities and differences. Both DGA and NAG are produced through hydrolysis using chitin as a raw material. However, DGA is produced by both hydrolysis and deacetylation simultaneously when chitin is decomposed with hydrochloric acid, and NAG is produced by weak acid or enzymatic degradation of chitin, resulting in only cleavage of glycosidic linkage.

In terms of chemical structure, the basic structure of DGA and NAG is the same, except that the amino group of DGA is acetylated in NAG. In nature, acetylated NAG forms are more present in living organisms, so it can be said that NAG is closer to nature than DGA. Looking at the physicochemical characteristics, DGA easily shows browning by itself or by reacting with other food ingredients, but NAG hardly shows browning. This is because DGA exhibits browning well because it has an aldehyde group that common sugars have along with an amino group. In addition, the two substances are slightly different in taste, water activity, and pH of the aqueous solution.

In addition, DGA and NAG are evaluated to have similar physiological functions.

Ingestion of DGA or NAG is reported to increase the synthesis of cartilage tissue, connective tissue, and the mucous layer of the intestinal wall, which are components of the human body. The availability of gut microbes varies somewhat. NAG acts as a probiotics because it is selectively used by beneficial bacteria in the intestine. But DGA is not like that.

Based on this, NAG, like DGA, is recognized as a pain reduction and treatment material for osteoarthritis in the United States, Canada, and Japan, and is produced and sold as a health food.

Comparison of Glucosamine (DGA) and N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG)

Enter 2004-08-30 17:19 Edit 2004.09.01 09:45


Glucosamine (DGA)

N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG)

distribution in nature

1. Components of the cell wall of fungi (zygote fungi)

2. Components of mucopolysaccharide such as cartilage

1. NAG is present in cow's milk and breast milk

2. Main components of oligosaccharides in milk and breast milk

3. Components of mucopolysaccharide such as cartilage

4. Anticipation of glycobiota constituting chitin constituting the outer shell of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimps

dynamics in vivo

1. Well researched and now approved as food and medicine

1. 20% of orally administered NAG is excreted, about 60% is used as an energy source, and the remaining 20% is widely distributed in the body and exists in connective tissue, cartilage tissue, and skin tissue.

1 day intake

(as functional food)

1. 1.0-1.5 g/day

1. 0.1-1.0 g/day, usually 0.1 g. Similar to glucosamine.

physiological function

1. Gut bacteria do not use it well

2. Pain relief and treatment effects for osteoarthritis have been proven.

- Pain relief

- Improving cartilage tissue between joints

- Currently licensed and used as medicine and food

1. Only beneficial lactic acid bacteria in the intestine are selectively used

2. As with glucosamine, it has been reported to be effective in deforming arthritis.

-Increased the glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage. Similar to glucosamine.

- There is an experiment report on rats.

3. In the case of patients with Bowel disease, it has the function of restoring the intestinal mucosa (glycoprotein). Superior to Glucosamine

4. Skin hyaluronic acid biosynthesis promotion effect

- When NAG was orally administered to rats, the content of hyaluronic acid in the skin increased in a concentration-dependent manner.

- There is also a skin improvement effect in experiments on humans.


1. It has been evaluated as safe as a food/drug and is being used.

1. No abnormalities were observed as a result of a single dose (5g/KG) acute oral toxicity test using rats.

2. Ames Test showed no mutagenicity.

​Examples of use in each country

1. It is used as a medicine and dietary supplement for the purpose of pain relief and treatment of osteoarthritis in the United States, Japan, Europe, and Korea.

2. In general, in the case of medicine, glucosamine sulfate is used after decomposing chitin with hydrochloric acid to make glucosamine hydrochloride and then modifying it through chemical methods.

3. In Japan, chemically produced glucosamine sulfate is not permitted as food, only glucosamine hydrochloride.

1. Used in the US, Canada, Japan, etc., but currently not licensed in Korea.

2. In the United States and Canada, it is used as a health food that is effective for osteoarthritis in combination with glucosamine.

3. In Japan, it is included in the list of health food additives to prevent degenerative arthritis and skin aging.

Inhibiting cartilage degeneration, improving skin dryness, etc. Wide application range

△ Functionality and stability of N-acetylglucosamine

N-acetylglucosamine is a safe substance that exists in a free state in about 11 mg in 100 ml of milk. N-acetylglucosamine is also synthesized in the human body and is widely present in the body as a human body component that constitutes glucosaminoglycan, glycolipid, glycoprotein, etc. It is a substance that On the other hand, sugar is not biosynthesized in the human body but synthesized and supplied by plants, and is decomposed in the body to be used as an energy source or stored as fat or glycogen.

ⓛ Relationship with joint health

When degenerative changes were induced in rat knee joints with papain and oral administration of N-acetylglucosamine, the changes in glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage tissue, the degree of absorption of radioisotope-labeled glucosamine, and the effect on cartilage histology were studied. As a result, N-acetyl glucosamine showed a useful effect of inhibiting cartilage degeneration, and it was shown to increase the availability of glucosamine added together. In addition, when N-acetylglucosamine was added, it was shown to inhibit degenerative changes in articular cartilage tissue.

② Proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the intestine

N-acetylglucosamine has the effect of significantly inhibiting elastase secretion from leukocytes. In the case of N-acetylglucosamine, there was a stronger antisecretory effect. Since elastase acts to cause degeneration of articular cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and bones in rheumatoid arthritis, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine inhibiting the secretion of elastase from immune cells (leukocytes) means that rheumatoid arthritis It has been shown that it can be used to alleviate back pain.

N-acetylglucosamine was not toxic to rat bone cells even at a concentration of 300ug/ml, showed the effect of preventing collagenolysis in joints, and prevented calcium from escaping from bones, so it can be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. results showed that

N-acetylglucosamine is also a bifidus growth factor as a constituting unit of oligosaccharides in breast milk. That is, N-acetyl glucosamine is used only by beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, etc.) in the intestine, and Clostridium, a harmful bacteria in the intestine, hardly uses it. Therefore, when N-acetylglucosamine is used as a sweetener, unlike sugar (glucose + fructose), it has a good effect of specifically proliferating beneficial bacteria in the intestine.

③Couple effect

According to the dermatological diagnosis by the doctor, N-acetylglucosamine compounded food significantly improved skin dryness, and when measuring the moisture content of the skin, the water content of N-acetylglucosamine compounded food would have been consumed for 8 weeks. has increased In addition, according to the three-dimensional image analysis of the skin, the long-term intake of N-acetylglucosamine compounded food made the skin smooth. N-acetylglucosamine is a component related to the synthesis of hyaluronic acid in the human body, and hyaluronic acid plays a role in preventing skin tissue from drying out.

④Effects of gastrointestinal health

Crohn's disease or colon ulcers accompany degradation of sulphated glycosaminoglycan (matrix) in the extensive mucosa, resulting in various pathological phenomena such as intestinal hemorrhage and intestinal stenosis. Among 12 children who ingested N-acetylglucosamine, which is a substrate for glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, to treat the degradation of the mucosal matrix caused by these inflammatory diseases of the small intestine, 8 showed a marked improvement and the other 4 showed no response. . However, histological improvement was observed in all cases, and the mucosal glycosaminoglycan content was increased. These results showed that harmless N-acetylglucosamine can be effectively used for the treatment of chronic digestive inflammatory diseases.

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